University of Cambridge, Faculty of Law

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Contact Details

Geraldo Vidigal

Sidney Sussex College

Remedies for Non-Compliance in International Law


My research explores the phenomenon of judicial remedies for non-compliance in international law. Lacking enforcement powers, international courts have traditionally refrained from intervening in disputes beyond the issuing of a final and binding decision, often coupled with a finding of responsibility and determination of a form and quantum of reparation. I examine the alternative offered by the WTO's 'prospective' or 'forward-looking' remedies, aimed at inducing future compliance rather than providing reparation for past damage. Similar remedies for compliance control have been devised in non-compliance procedures and mechanisms within specialised adjudication systems and mechanisms. My dissertation discusses the different functions fulfilled by adjudicators when providing each form of remedy and the corresponding expectations regarding the duties of parties following a finding of violation. Based on current experience in specialised arrangements, I examine the potential role for judicial assessments of compliance, and provisions for compliance-inducing measures, as legal remedies to be used by international courts.

Start Date: 2009/10.

End Date: 2013/10.

Education / CV


PhD Candidate in Law, Evan Lewis-Thomas Scholar (Sidney Sussex College) | University of Cambridge

LLM in International Law, High Honours (Mention Bien) | Sorbonne Law School (Paris 1), 2008

Admitted to the Brazilian Bar Association, 2006

LLB | University of São Paulo, 2005


European Marie Curie Fellow, DISSETTLE Network (2013-2014)

European Commission Legal Service (Trade Team), Blue Book Trainee (2012)

Cambridge Journal of International and Comparative Law, Editor (2011-2012)

RAND Corporation, Researcher and Field Worker (2010-2011)

WTI Advisors, Researcher (2010-2011)

International Chamber of Commerce, International Court of Arbitration, Intern (2009)

Brazilian Mission to the WTO, Trainee (2009)

Pinheiro Neto Advogados, Associate Lawyer | São Paulo (2004-2007)

Fields of Research

Public International Law; International & Regional Trade Law; Jurisprudence

Representative Publications

From Bilateral to Multilateral Law-making: Legislation, Practice, Evolution and the Future of Inter Se Agreements in the WTO’ 24(4) European Journal of International Law (2013) 1027-1053.

Re-Assessing WTO Remedies: The Prospective and the Retrospective’ 16(3) Journal of International Economic Law (2013) 505-534.

Appellate Body Report, United States ─ Measures Affecting the Production and Sale of Clove Cigarettes’ 22 Italian Yearbook of International Law (2013) 310-317.

Enforcing Democracy at the Regional Level: Paraguay's Suspension before the Mercosur Court’ 2 Cambridge Journal of International and Comparative Law (2013) 337-349.

(co-author) ‘A Regulação do Comércio Internacional e a Organização Mundial do Comércio’, in Umberto Celli Jr, Maristela Basso, Alberto do Amaral Jr (coords), Arbitragem e Comércio Internacional: Estudos em Homenagem a Luiz Olavo Baptista (São Paulo: Quartier Latin, 2013), 455-503.

UK Supreme Court Annual Review: ‘International Law’ and ‘Immigration Law’ 1 Cambridge Journal of International and Comparative Law  (2012) 127-131.

Book Review: Jan Klabbers, 'Treaty Conflict and the European Union'’ 6 Cambridge Student Law Review (2010) 339-342.

(co-author) ‘Panorama Jurídico-econômico dos Investimentos Transnacionais’, in Paulo Borba Casella, Umberto Celli Jr, Elizabeth de Almeida Meirelles e Fabrício Bertini Pasquot Polido (orgs), Direito Internacional, Humanismo e Globalidade (São Paulo: Atlas, 2008), 599-618.


Dr. Lorand Bartels


Prof. James Crawford

Prof. Petros Mavroidis